Annotation:Eighth of January (1)

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X:1 T:Eighth of January [1] M:2/4 L:1/8 N:A very standard and straightforward version of the tune. B:Stephen F. Davis - Devil's Box, vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1988 (p. 21) N:Transcribed by Frank Maloy, based on the version by Warren Smith, c. 1940's Z:AK/Fiddler's Companion K:D e/a/|"D"f/e/f/a/ f/e/d/f/|"G"e/f/e/d/ BB/d/|"A7"ee/f/ e/d/B/A/|"D"d/B/A/[F/A/] [DA]e/a/| "D"f/e/f/a/ f/e/d/f/|"G"e/f/e/d/ B/d/e/f/|"A7"a/f/e/a/ f/e/c/A/|"D"d/B/A/F/ D:| |:"D"A/A/|AA/B/ AA/A/|A/d/B/A/ F/E/D/F/|AA/B/ AA/d/|"A7"B/A/F/E/ "D"D[D/A/][F/A/]| "D"AA/B/ AA/A/|A/d/B/A/ F/E/D/F/|AA/A/ A/d/f/e/|"A7"d/B/A/F/ "D"D:| |:e/a/|"D"fa f[df]|"G"e/f/e/[d/e/] [Be][B/e/][d/e/]|"A7"[ee]e/f/ e/d/B/A/|"D"d/B/A/[F/A/] [DA]e/a/| "D"fa f[df]|"G"e/f/e/d/ B/d/e/f/|"A7"aA Bc|"D"d/B/A/F/ D:| |:f/g/|"D"a/f/b/f/ a/f/d/f/|a/f/b/f/ af/g/|a/f/b/f/ a/f/g/a/|"A7"f/d/e/c/ "D"df/g/| "D"a/f/b/f/ a/f/b/f/|a/f/b/f/ af/g/|a/f/b/f/ a/f/g/a/|"A7"f/d/e/c/ "D"d:|]

EIGHTH OF JANUARY [1]. AKA and see "Jackson's Victory, "Go See the Widow." ." American, Reel. USA, Widely known. D Major. Standard or ADae (Molsky) (fiddle). AABB (Brody, Christeson, Phillips, Ruth, Sing Out, Sweet): AABB' (Krassen). One of the most popular and widespread of Southern fiddle tunes, and, as usual, there are a large number of variants, albeit consistently with the "Eighth of January" title. Parts are often reversed from version to version, and sometimes extra parts are added, and melodies can differ significantly

The melody was originally named "Jackson's Victory" after Andrew Jackson's famous rout of the British at New Orleans on January, 8th, 1815. This victory, by a small, poorly equiped American army against eight thousand front-line British troops (some veterans of the Napoleonic Wars on the Continent), came after the peace treaty was signed and the War of 1812 ended, unbeknownst to the combatants. The victory made Jackson a national hero, and the anniversary of the Battle of New Orleans was widely celebrated with parties and dances during the nineteenth century, especially in the South. Around the time of the Civil War, some time after Jackson's Presidency, his popular reputation suffered and "Jackson's Victory" was renamed to delete mention of him by name, thus commemorating the battle and not the man. Despite its wide dissemination, Tom Carter (1975) says that some regard it as a relatively modern piece refashioned from an older tune named "Jake Gilly" (sometimes "Old Jake Gilly"). Not all agree--Tom Rankin (1985) suggests the fiddle tune may be older than the battle it commemorates, and that it seems American in origin, not having an obvious British antecedent as do several older popular fiddle tunes in the United States. A related tune (though the 'B' part is developed differently") is Bayard's (1981) Pennsylvania collected "Chase the Squirrel" (the title is a floater). Most older fiddlers, however, appear to have retained the tune's association in lore with Jackson's battle.

Some variants stray quite far from the core melody that is more-or-less familiar to many modern fiddlers (c.f. Dr. Humphrey Bate and His Possum Hunters); some sets feature the second strain played an octave higher for variation. It is on Charlie Walden's list of '100 essential Missouri fiddle tunes'. The "Eighth of January" was recorded for the Library of Congress from Ozark Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph, and from Mississippi fiddlers (John Hatcher, W.E. Claunch, Enos Canoy, Hardy Sharp) in 1939 by collector Herbert Halpert. The reel was in the repertoire of Cuje Bertram, an African-American fiddler from the Cumberland Plateau region of Kentucky who recorded it on a home tape in 1970, made for his family. In 1936 James Morris (Jimmy Driftwood), while teaching scholl in Timbo, Arkansas, famously refashioned the old traditional tune with new lyrics into "The Battle of New Orleans" (recorded on "Jimmie Driftwood Sings Newly Discovered Early American Folk Songs", Victor RPM 1635), supposedly to make the event more interesting to his students (see Streeter, The Jimmy Driftwood Primer, p. 20). In 1959 singer Johnny Horton recorded a version of Driftwood's song, which rose to the top of the hit parade that year (recorded on "Johnny Horton Makes History", Columbia 1478).

Missouri fiddler Glenn Rickman, born in 1901, was featured in an article in Bittersweet magazine and played "The Eighth of January" as part of his core repertoire. He had a seemingly curious habit:

I play the 'Eighth of January' over the telephone to a department store here. Every eighth of January I call up the department store and they put in on their loud speaker. This time I had it taped. I played 'Carroll County Blues,...Sally Goodin',...Forked Deer' and 'Eighth of January.' I'm glad to get to do this. The 'Eighth of January,' that was known way back before my grandpa was born...

Rickman's playing over the phone for a department store audience is less curious when one considers that playing over the phone was at one time not unusual:

When the party line came in, telephones were used sort of like the radio was later. Ten to fifteen families on a line could all listen in. On lines like Slim Wilson's line, the neighbors would get a treat. The Wilson family that lived near Nixa, Missouri, were all good musicians, and when they were ready to play, they'd signal over the telephone line. Everyone would take down the receivers and listen to the Wilson family fiddling. Some would let the receiver hang down in a bucket to help amplify the sound. (Allen Gage, Bittersweet, Volume IX, No. 3, Spring 1982)

Drew Beisswenger (2008) cites Rohrbough (Handy Play Party Book, p. 52, 71) and points out the melody of "Eighth of January" resembles a few singing games such as "Old Dan Tucker" and "Girl's A-Fooling." Early sound recordings of the tune are by the Arkansas Barefoot Boys (1928, with Cyrus Futrell on fiddle), Dr. Humphrey Bate (1928), and the Texas Cowboy Trio (Kentucky Woodchoppers, 1930).

Additional notes
Source for notated version : - Charlie Higgins (Galax, Va.) [Krassen]; Cyril Stinnett (Oregon, Missouri) [Christeson]; Tommy Jackson [Phillips/1994]; Kermit Moody (1909-1977, Mountain View, Stone County, Arkansas) [Beisswenger & McCann]; Sam McCracken (Ala.), John Lusk (Tenn.), John Hatcher (Miss.), Ernest Claunch (Miss.), Pete McMahan (Mo.)[Milliner & Koken]; Lusk String Band via the playing of Bruce Molsky [Songer].

Printed sources : - Beisswenger & McCann (Ozarks Fiddle Music), 2008; p. 97. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; p. 99. R.P. Christeson (Old Time Fiddler's Repertory, vol. 2), 1984; p. 65. Stephen F. Davis (Devil's Box), vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 1988; p. 21. Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; p. 63. Kaufman (Beginning Old Time Fiddle), 1977; p. 39. Krassen (Appalachian Fiddle), 1973; p. 50. Milliner & Koken (Milliner-Koken Collection of American Fiddle Tunes), 2011, pp. 187-189 (six versions). Phillips (Fiddle Case Tunebook: Old Time Southern), 1989; p. 17. Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, vol. 1), 1994; p. 80. Ruth (Pioneer Western Folk Tunes), 1948; No. 15, p. 7. Sing Out, vol. 36, No. 2, August, 1991; p. 77. Susan Songer with Clyde Curley (Portland Collection vol. 3), 2015; p. 65. Sweet (Fifer's Delight), 1964/1981; p. 76.

Recorded sources : - Alabama Traditions CD 103, Sam McCracken - "Possum up a Gum Stump." Brunswick 239 (78 RPM) {1928}, Dr. Humphrey Bate and His Possum Hunters (Nashville, Tenn. Bill Barret was the fiddler for the tune, not Bate's regular, Oscar Stone). Caney Mountain Records CLP 228, Lonnie Robertson (Mo.) – "Fiddle Favorites." County 518, Arkansas Barefoot Boys – "Echoes of the Ozarks, Vol. 1." County 527, Ted Gossett's Band – "Old Time Fiddle Classics, vol. 2" (reissue). County 531, The Fox Chasers – "Old Time String Band Classics" (1975). County 541, Dr. Humphrey Bate & His Possum Hunters – "Nashville; the Early String Bands, Vol. 1." County 727, John Ashby – "Old Virginia Fiddling." DLP-636, Scotty Stoneman – "Mr. Country Fiddler." Graphic GR1005, Pete McMahan - "Missouri Fiddlin' No. 4" (1979) Heritage 060, Major Contay and the Canebreak Rattlers – "Music of the Ozarks" (Brandywine, 1984). Kicking Mule KM-301, "Happy Traum, American Stranger" (1977). Library of Congress AAFS L2, W.E. Claunch (Miss.). Marimac 9017, Vesta Johnson – "Down Home Rag." Mississippi Department of Archives and History AH-002, Hardy C. Sharp (Meridian, Mississippi) – "Great Big Yam Potatoes: Anglo-American Fiddle Music from Mississippi" (1985). Missouri State Old Time Fiddlers' Association, Bob Walters (b. 1889) – "Drunken Wagoneer." Morning Star 45004, Ted Gossett's String Band (western Ky., originally recorded Sept., 1930) – "Wish I Had My Time Again." Ok 45496 (78RPM), The Fox Chasers. Pinecastle Records, Chubby Wise – "An American Original." Rounder 0085, "Tony Rice." Rounder 0361, Bruce Molsky – "Lost Boy" (1996. Learned from John Lusk String Band). Rounder 7002, Graham Townsend –"Le Violin/The Fiddle." Spr 2655 (78 RPM), Buddy Young's Kentuckian's (AKA the Ted Gossett Band, originally recorded Sept. 1930). Spt 9775 (78 RPM), The Country String Band (AKA the Ted Gossett Band/Buddy Young's Kentuckian's/Tommy Whitmer Band). Voyager 340, Jim Herd – "Old Time Ozark Fiddling." Voyager CD VRD366, Pete McMahan - "50 Old Time Gems."

See also listing at :
Jane Keefer's Folk Music Index: A Guide to Recorded Sources [1]
Hear Alabama fiddler Sam McCracken's version at Slippery Hill [2]
Hear Pete McMahon's 1979 recording at Slippery Hill [3]
Hear Willie & Fate Morrison's c. 1980 recording at Slippery Hill [4]
Hear W.E. Clauch's 1939 field recording at Slippery Hill [5]

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