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LORD INCHIQUIN. Irish, Slow Air or Planxty (3/4 time). D Major. Standard tuning (fiddle). AABB. Composed by blind Irish harper Turlough O'Carolan (1670-1738) in honor of the young 4th Earl of Inchiquin, William O'Brien (1694-1777), who became Grandmaster of the Freemasons of England in 1726. The family seat was in Dromoland Castle, Newmarket-on-Fergus, County Clare, which remained until 1962 in the hands of the Lords Inchiquin (it is now a high-end resort). Donal O'Sullivan (1958) says that O'Carolan was visiting the Rev. Charles Massey of Doonass, nearby to Dromoland, and suspects the piece was composed on that occasion.
Inchiquin was a Whig Member of Parliament for much of his life, and also held the offices of Governor of County Clare from (1741 to 1777) and Custos Rotulorum of County Clare (1762 to 1767). In 1753 he was admitted to the Privy Council of Ireland. Wikiepedia notes that "Inchiquin was feted by antiquarians and many of the works of Irish history produced at this time are dedicated to him; as an Anglican deriving his lineage from an old Gaelic family, he was a politique choice for those wishing to disseminate their work in Ascendancy Ireland and Hanoverian Britain." 
Source for notated version: the Edward Bunting manuscripts [O'Sullivan].
Printed sources: Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; p. 175. Complete Collection of Carolan's Irish Tunes, 1984; No. 58, p. 55. S. Johnson (The Kitchen Musician No. 3: Carolan), 1983 (revised 1991, 2001); p. 7. Miller & Perron (Irish Traditional Fiddle Music), 1977; vol. 1, No. 16. Miller & Perron (Irish Traditional Fiddle Music), 2nd Edition, 2006; p. 143. Ó Canainn (Traditional Slow Airs of Ireland), 1995; No. 44, pp. 40-41. O'Sullivan (Carolan: The Life, Times and Music of an Irish Harper), 1958; No. 58. Sullivan (Session Tunes), vol. 2; No. 51, p. 22. Tubridy (Irish Traditional Music, vol. 1), 1999; p. 39. Williamson (English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish Fiddle Tunes), 1976; p. 92.
Recorded sources: Claddagh TA5, "Chieftains #3" (1971). Folkways FTS 31098, Ken Perlman - "Clawhammer Banjo and Fingerstyle Guitar Solos." Island 9379, "Chieftains 3." Transatlantic 341, Dave Swarbrick- "Swarbrick 2." Rounder 0216, John McCutcheon - "Step by Step" (1986). Shanachie 79023, "Chieftains 3" (1971/1982).