Goddesses (1)

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GODDESSES [1]. AKA and see "Quodling’s Delight," "O the Oak and the Ash and the Bonny Ivy Tree." English, Country Dance Tune (2/2 or 4/4 time). G Minor (Barnes, Fleming-Williams, Karpeles, Raven, Sharp): A Minor (Chappell). Standard tuning (fiddle). AB (Sharp): AABB (Barnes, Chappell, Fleming-Williams, Karpeles, Raven). This air was first published by John Playford in his English Dancing Master (1651 and all subsequent editions through the 7th edition of 1686, after which the title was retained albeit attached to another melody), the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (1609), and Sir John Hawkins' transcripts. The title in which the tune appears in the 'Fitzwilliam Virginal Book is "Quodling’s Delight" and is attributed therein to composer Giles Farnaby.

"Goddesses [1]" belongs to a large and popular tune family which includes numerous dance and ballad melodies. Derivatives became, for example, the American shape note song "Samantha." It was also used for the English songs "North Country Maid (A)," "The Dumb Maid," "The Northern Lasse's Lamentation; or, The Unhappy Maid's Misfortune" ("I would I were in my own country"), and "The Oak and Ash (and Bonny Ivy Tree)," but also includes "I Am the Duke of Norfolk" or "Paul's Steeple." John Gay employed the melody for Air XIV in his Achilles (1733), beginning "To what a pitch is Man profuese." Modern musicologist John M. Ward has pointed out that all the tunes of this family may be considered descants over the ground known as passamezzo antico.

Graham Christian (2015) suggests the dance in Playford's 1651 volume may possibly have been one of the dances presented in the grand court masque The Vision of the Twelve Goddessess (1604), although he cautions this is speculation at this point.

See also the Manx derivative, "Mona's Delight"/"Eunyssagh Vona." It is also possible the Irish tune "Miss Lacey's Hornpipe" is also a derivative.

Source for notated version:

Printed sources: Barlow (Complete Country Dance Tunes from Playford's Dancing Master), 1985; No. 29, p. 23. Barnes (English Country Dance Tunes), 1989. Chappell (Popular Music of the Olden Times, vol. 1), 1859; p. 276 (appears as "Quodling's Delight"). Christian (A Playford Assembly), 2015; pp. 38-39. Fleming-Williams & Shaw (English Dance Airs; Popular Selection, Book 1), 1965; p. 5. Karpeles & Schofield (A Selection of 100 English Folk Dance Airs), 1951; p. 14. Raven (English Country Dance Tunes), 1984; pp. 25 & 42 (the latter is a facsimile reprint of the Playford original). Sharp (Country Dance Tunes), 1909; p. 24. Walsh (Complete Country Dancing-Master, Volume the Fourth), London, 1740; No. 121.

Recorded sources:




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