Annotation:Leather Britches

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X:1 T:Leather Breeches M:2/4 L:1/8 R:Reel B:E.F. Adam - Old Time Fiddlers Favorite Barn Dance Tunes (1928, No. B:33, p. 14 Z:AK/Fiddler's Companion K:G ([G,/D/]G/E/G/) ([G,/D/]G/E/G/) |([G,/D/]G/E/G/) ([G,/A/]G/E/G/)|([G,/D/]G/E/G/) ([G,/D/]G/E/G/) |D/[C/D][B,/D/][A,/D/] [B,/D/]-[G,/D/][G,D]| ([G,/D/]G/E/G/) ([G,/D/]G/E/G/) |([G,/D/]G/E/G/) ([G,/A/]G/E/G/)|G/A/G/E/ D/(B/G/E/)|D/F/A/C/ (B/[G/B/])[GB]:| |:[D/B/]-[Dd][D/B/]- [Dd] e/f/|g/a/b/g/ a/(g/e/d/)|[D/B/]-[Dd][D/B/]- [Dd] e/f/|g/f/e/d/ (B/[G/B/])| [D/B/]-[Dd][D/B/]- [Dd] e/f/|g/a/b/g/ a/(g/e/f/)|g/a/g/e/ d/(B/G/E/)|D/F/A/c/ (B[G/B/])[GB]:| |:d/g/b/g/ a/(g/b/g/)|d/g/b/g/ a/(g/e/g/)|d/g/b/g/ a/(g/b/g/)|d/c/B/A/ (B/[G/B/])[GB]| d/g/b/g/ a/(g/b/g/)|d/g/b/g/ a/(g/e/f/)|g/a/g/e/ d/(B/G/E/)|D/F/A/c/ (B/[G/B/])[GB]:|

LEATHER BREECHES/BRITCHES. See "Lord MacDonald (4)" which is thought to be the origin of the American version. AKA and see "Breeches On (The)," "Britches Full of Stitches (The)," "Irish Lad (The)," "Irish Lad's a Jolly Boy (The)," "Old Leather Breeches (2)," "O the Breeches Full of Stitches," "Lord MacDonald (4)," "McDonald's Reel," "Petit Bûcheux (Le)," "Reel McDonnell," "Slanty Gart." Old-Time, Bluegrass; Breakdown. USA, very widely known. G Major. Standard tuning (fiddle). AB (Bayard, Silberberg): AABB (Brody, Lowinger): AABCC (Titon): ABCDD (Christeson): AABBCC (Shumway, Thede): AA'BB'CC' (Phillips): AABCCDDC' (Krassen). The title may refer to 'leather breeches', a nickname in some parts of the American South and West for green (snap) beans dried in the pod and later cooked. Sometimes the beans would be pieced with a needle and thread and strung together, then hung to dry where they would last the winter (but would need to be soaked to re-hydrate them prior to cooking).

Alternatively, the title may refer to actual garments made of leather, and it has been pointed out the the playing of the tune on the fiddle involves bowing in a motion that has been likened to the movements in sewing with a needle and thread. Professor Samuel Bayard notes the tune is descended from, or related to, an Irish air called "Breeches On (The)" or "Irish Lad (The)" and a widespread Scottish reel generally called "Lord MacDonald (4)/McDonald's Reel." Generally, the order of the parts is reversed from the 'MacDonald' tune. Paul Gifford believes that the earliest version of "Leather Breeches" in print (under that title) appears in numerical tablature in Music for the Piano Dulcimer by Robert J. Rudisill (born about 1804, a farmer of Ralls County, Missouri.), published by Stedman (New York) & Milton (Kentucky) with a date of 1859, sold by L.S. & H. Wade. The volume, says Paul, was apparently written to accompany the dulcimers manufactured by the Wades in Chautaqua County, New York. Gifford remarks (in Fiddle-L, 2013), that "Leather Breeches," "is in A Tour Through Indiana in 1840: The Diary of John Parsons of Petersburg, Virginia (NY: Robert M. McBRide & Co., 1920, now in University of Pittsburgh Library), p. 227, where, describing a wedding somewhere out of Logansport, Indiana, he wrote:"

When we returned to the first cabin we found the young people already dancing, having induced the old fiddler to take his station in one corner, where he played in a most lugubrious fashion the old tune of "Leather Breeches."

Gifford also notes: "A poem by William Lightfoot Visscher (1842-1924), "Dancing in the Old Time," in Bluegrass Ballads and Other Verse (NY, 1900), says (depicting a black fiddler, no doubt before the Civil War):"

There the fiddler, gray and sable,
Stamps a foot and gaily plays:
Plays his "Hear de Bells a-Ringing,"
Then his "Snowbird at de Do',"
While he calls the figures, singing:
"Swing dem cawnders!" "Forrid fo'!"
His favorite, "Old Leather Breeches,"
Rings thro' memory in my ear,
And his singing, "Full er Stitches,"
Blends with rattling "Forked Deer"

Many sources note this tunes popularity in the United States: for example, Marion Thede said it was "among the most frequently heard fiddle tunes in the Southwest," while Arizona fiddler Kenner C. Kartchner stated it was "a great favorite in early Texas cattle country" (Shumway). Bell Wiley listed it among the popular fiddle tunes played by fiddlers in the Confederate army in his book The Life of Johnny Reb. It was in repertory of Alabama fiddler D. Dix Hollis (1861–1927) who considered it one of "the good old tunes of long ago" (as quoted in the Opelika Daily News of April 17th, 1926), and it was commonly played by Rock Ridge Alabama fiddlers around 1920 (Bailey). It was mentioned in the autobiography of fiddler Tom Freeman of Cullman County, Alabama, and was listed in the Tuscaloosa News of March 28th, 1971 as a specialty of "Monkey" Brown of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, who had a local reputation in the 20's and 30's (Cauthen, 1990). The tune was recorded for the Library of Congress (by musicologist/folklorist Vance Randolph) from the playing of Ozarks Mountain fiddlers in the early 1940's, and (by Herbert Halpert) from the playing of Mississippi fiddlers John Hatcher, Stephen B. Tucker, and Hardy Sharp in 1939. "Leather Breeches" was played in the non-standard key of 'D' Major by Surry County, North Carolina, fiddler Benton Flippen (b. 1920). Benton told David Holt in a 2002 interview that "Leather Britches" was the first tune he learned on the fiddle, from his Uncle John.

The melody was a standard at fiddlers' contests in many areas of the South and Mid-West. It was a 'category tune' for an 1899 fiddle contest in Gallatin, Tenn., in which each fiddler would play his version; the best rendition won a prize (C. Wolfe, The Devil's Box, vol. 14, No. 4, 12/1/80). Larkin Hicks of Broadhead, Kentucky, played "Leather Breeches" in the 1919 Berea, Kentucky, fiddle contest, as recorded in lists of tunes played at the event (Titon, 2001). It was predicted to "vie with the latest jazz nerve wreckers for first place" at a fiddlers' convention in Chilton County, Alabama, according to the Chilton County News of June 1, 1922 (Cauthen, 1990), and was also predicted by the Northwest Alabamian of August 29th, 1929, that it was likely to be played at an upcoming contest. A.B. Moore, in his 1934 History of Alabama, said it was one of the standard tunes in the square dance fiddler's repertoire, and it was listed as one of the definitive fiddle tunes for a contest in Jackson, Alabama, in the Clarke County Democrat of May 6, 1926 (Cauthen, 1990). It was a tune in the repertoire of fiddler and Confederate veteran Arnold A. Parrish (Willow Springs, Wake County, N.C.), as recorded by the old Raleigh News and Observer. Parrish was a contestant at fiddler's conventions held in Raleigh prior to World War I. In the Franklin/Floyd County area of southwestern Va. the reel is well-known, particularly as "Old Leather Breeches/Britches" (Tom Carter & Blanton Owen, 1976).

The reel has retained popularity to this day as a contest tune. A story has been told of California old-time mandolin player Kenny Hall who played this tune in the 1970's at the 'national' contest at Weiser, Idaho, a hot-bed of Texas-style or 'contest' fiddling that dominated the stage. Hall said he had learned "Leather Britches" from an old Texas fiddler, and that his was what "real" Texas fiddling was all about, which did not endear him to many Texans that weekend. Compounding his faux pas, was his reference to Dick Barrett's Texas version: "That ain't Leather Britches, its Perma Press." The Texans were not amused.

Samuel Bayard suggests the rhyme sung to the melody by old-time musicians is borrowed from an Irish air (song) called "Britches On (The)." Researcher and fiddler Lisa Ornstein, however, says the only association she could find to support this was in Irish novelist and Fenian Charles J. Kickham's novel Knocknagow, or the Homes of Tipperary (1879), in which a jews-harper plays the tune and then sings: "Oh, my breeches full of stitches, Oh, my breeches buckled on, Oh, my breeches full of stitches, Oh my breeches buckled on" to a visitor who has a torn pant-leg (Chapter 19). See also Irish variants under the "McDonald" titles as well as "Glentaun Reel (The)", "Gleanntán Reel (1) (The)" and "Glentown."

"This [i.e. Bayard's 1944 set] is the best set of 'Leather Breeches' yet to turn up in western Pennsylvania." The tune is often accompanied by a rhyme that in Greene County (Pa.) tradition runs:

Leather breeches full of stitches,
Old shoes and stockings on—
My wife she kicked me out of bed
Because I had my breeches on.

Bayard's source Mrs. Armstrong recalled only two lines:

Leather breeches, full of stitches,
Mammy sewed the buttons on.

Ford (1940) prints these words:

Leather Breeches full of stitches,
Leather Breeches, Leather Breeches;
Mammy cut 'em out an'
M'daddy sewed an' sewed the stitches.

Additional notes
Source for notated version : - 'Uncle' Am Stuart (b. 1855. East Tennessee) [Krassen]; John White (Garfield County, Oklahoma) passed down from Uncle John MacDonald (Jack County, Texas) [Thede]; Stick Osborn (St. Joseph, Missouri) [Christeson]; Mrs. Sarah Armstrong, (near) Derry, Pennsylvania, November 18, 1943 [Bayard, 1944]; 15 southwestern Pa. fiddlers [Bayard, 1981]; Kenner C. Kartchner (Arizona) [Shumway]; Ralph Sauers (Dice, Pa.) [Guntharp]; Wil Gilmer with the Leake County Revellers and Howard Forrester [Phillips]; Walter McNew (Mt. Vernon, Rockcastle County, Ky., 1990), who learned the tune from his father, John G. McNew [Titon]; Boyd Asher (Milliner & Koken); Earl Johnson (Milliner & Koken); Doc Roberts (Milliner & Koken); Jim Bowles (Milliner & Koken).

Printed sources : - Adam (Old Time Fiddlers' Favorite Barn Dance Tunes), 1928; No. 33. Bayard (Hill Country Tunes), 1944; No. 16. Bayard (Dance to the Fiddle), 1981; No. 328A-O, pp. 293–298. Brody (Fiddler's Fakebook), 1983; p. 166. Christeson (Old Time Fiddlers Repertory, vol. 1), 1973; p. 88. Cole (1000 Fiddle Tunes), 1940; p. 22. Ford (Traditional Music in America), 1940; p. 48. Guntharp (Learning the Fiddler's Ways), 1980; p. 72. Jarman (The Cornhuskers Book of Square Dance Tunes), 1944; p. 5. Krassen (Masters of Old Time Fiddling), 1983; pp. 15–16. Lowinger (Bluegrass Fiddle), 1974; p. 19. Milliner & Koken (Milliner-Koken Collection of American Fiddle Tunes), pp. 378–380 (four versions). Phillips (Traditional American Fiddle Tunes, vol. 1), 1994; p. 139. Robbins (Collection of 200 Jigs, Reels, and Country Dances), 1933; No. 61. Shumway (Frontier Fiddler), 1990; p. 268. Silberberg (Fiddle Tunes I Learned at the Tractor Tavern), 2002; p. 88. Ruth (Pioneer Western Folk Tunes), 1948; No. 53, p. 19. Thede (The Fiddle Book), 1967; p. 115. Thomas (Devil's Ditties), pp. 134–135. Titon (Old-Time Kentucky Fiddle Tunes), 2001; No. 90, p. 119. White's Excelsior Collection, p. 27.

Recorded sources : - Berea College Appalachian Center AC003, "John Salyer Home Recordings, 1941-42, vol. 2" (1993). Caney Mountain Records CEP 210 (extended play LP, privately issued), Lonnie Robertson (Mo.), c. 1965-66. Columbia 15149 (78 RPM), The Leake County Revelers (1927). Columbia 33397, Dave Bromberg – "Midnight on the Water" (1975). County 201, The Old Virginia Fiddlers – "Rare Recordings." County 506, The Skillet Lickers – "Old Time Tunes." County 532, "The Leake County Revelers: 1927–1930 Recordings" (1975). County 543, Earl Johnson and His Clodhoppers – "Red Hot Breakdown" (originally recorded in 1927). County 707, Lewis Franklin – "Texas Fiddle Favorites." County 714, Kenny Baker and Joe Greene – "High Country." County 733, Clark Kessinger – "The Legend of Clark Kessinger." Document DOCD 8042, "Doc Roberts vol. 1" (1999). Edison 51548 (78 RPM), 1923, John Baltzell (appears as last tune of "Drunken Sailor Medley"). Flying Cloud FC-023, Kirk Sutphin – "Fiddlin' Around." Flying Fish FF-336, Pete Sutherland – "Poor Man's Dream" (1984). Folkways FA2336, Clark Kessinger – "Fiddler" (1966). Folkways FTS 31098, Ken Perlman – "Clawhammer Banjo and Fingerstyle Guitar Solos." Gennett G13836 (78 RPM), Doc Roberts (1928). Hilltop Records 6022, Uncle Jimmy Thompson. June Appal 024, Luke Smathers String Band – "Mountain Swing." June Appal 028, Wry Staw – "From Earth to Heaven" (1978. Learned from Virgil Cravens of Cedar Falls, N.C. "one of the last of the traditional southern hammer dulcimer players). Library of Congress AFS 4804-B-1, 1941, Osey and Ernest Helton (Western N.C.). Marimac AHS #3, Glen Smith – "Say Old Man" (1990. Learned from Bob Crawford). Marimac 9038, Dan Gellert & Brad Leftwich – "A Moment in Time." Marimac 9060, Jim Bowles – "Railroading Through the Rocky Mountians" (1992). Marimac 9030, Lotus Dickey – "Fiddle Tunes from Orange County, Ind., vol. 2" (1992). Marimac 9111, Carter Brothers and Son – "Goin' Up Town: Old Time String Bands, vol. 2" (orig. rec. 1928). Mississippi Department of Archives and History AH-002, John Hatcher – "Great Big Yam Potatoes: Anglo-American Fiddle Music from Mississippi" (1985). PearlMae Muisc 004-2, Jim Taylor – "The Civil War Collection" (1996). Philo 1051, Boys of the Lough (with mandolinist Kenny Hall) – "Good Friends, Good Music" (1977). Rounder 0024, Alan Jabbour – "The Hollow Rock String Band" (1974). Rounder 1027, Johnnie Lee Wills – "Tulsa Swing." Rounder 0024, "Hollow Rock String Band." Rounder 0436, Art Galbraith – "Traditional Fiddle Music of the Ozarks, vol. 2: On the Springfield Plain." Rounder 82161-1108-2, Lon Jordan – "Ozark Folksongs." Silvertone 8176 (78 RPM), Doc Roberts (1928). Supertone 9269 (78 RPM), Fiddlin' Jim Burke (1928. 'Jim Burke' was a Pseudonym for Doc Roberts on the Supertone label). Vocalion 5456 (78 RPM), Uncle Jimmy Thompson (Tenn., Texas) {4/1930}. Vocalion (78 RPM), Uncle Am Stuart (b. 1856, Morristown, Tenn.), 1924. Voyager 309, Benny and Jerry Thomasson – "The Weiser Reunion: A Jam Session" (1993).

See also listing at :
Jane Keefer's Folk Music Index: An Index to Recorded Sources [1]
Alan Ng's [2]
Hear John Morgan Salyer's 1940-41 home recording at Berea Sound Archives [3]
Hear Jim Woodward's 'swing' version from a 1980 field recording at Berea Digital Content [4]
Hear the Leake County Reveler's recording at Juneberry 78's [5]
Hear W.A. Hinton's banjo rendition at Juneberry 78's [6]
Hear Boyd Asher play the tune at Slippery-Hill [7]
Hear Earl Johnson play the tune at Slippery-Hill [8]
Hear Doc Roberts play the tune at Slippery-Hill [9]
Hear Jim Bowles play the tune at Slippery-Hill [10]
Hear Doc Roberts' 1928 recording at Slippery Hill [11] and [12]
Hear Emma Lee Dickerson's 1974 field recording by Barbara Kunkle at Berea Sound Archives [13]

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